RapidRadio Solutions


About RFID :

RFID is an auto identification technology which is used for tracking items with a tag on it which sends data to readers through radio waves. These tags makes the item to speak about its identity, activity, location and data stored inside through readers and finally to the application software to make the information useful.
 

Components of RFID System:
 
Tags:
 

The tag is made up of a microchip with the unique identification number and the antenna to be able to transmit this data to the reader wirelessly. RFID tags have high data capacity and can include manufacturer, batch no., ownership, destination, history etc. depending on the application needs. The amount of storage available on the tag ranges from 16 bits to as high as several thousand bits. There are three types of encoding available in tags i.e. Read only, write once, and re-writable tags.

 
Active and Passive tags

Passive tags are battery less and transmit data only when energized by the reader. Active tags are able to transmit data using their own battery power. Read ranges are more for active tags than for passive tags but are costlier for their extra capability. Therefore active tags are used for high value items and for longer reading distance.

 
Structure of EPC Complaint Tag
 

Electronic Product Code Type I

01

0000A89

00016F

000169DC0

Header

8 bits

EPC Manager

28 bits

Object Class

24 - bits

Serial Number

36 - bits

 
Readers:
 

The RFID Reader, which is also widely known as interrogator, sends RF signal to request tag for transmitting information within the chip. The response received from the tag is then translated in to digital form and send to the application software. Different types of readers are fixed readers, handheld readers, network readers, readers embedded in other mobile devices etc.

 
RFID Antenna:
 

The antenna transmits an electromagnetic field, which activates the tag. The antenna also receives the data from the tag and sends it to the reader. RFID tag also has an antenna, which receives the required power from the electromagnetic field, and transmits the data. Tags also require an antenna to transmit the information to the reader and to receive information from the reader if it is a rewritable tag.

 
Application Software:
 

It is enterprise software which finally uses the data captured by the readers and uses the information to provide real-time visibility to the process. In some cases RFID middleware is developed which lies between the hardware infrastructure and the software application as a common interface which manages data flow between the two and manages the hardware infrastructure.

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Standards:

 

Standard

Frequencies

Subject of the Standard

EPC Class 0

860 - 930 MHz

 

Parameters for air interface communication

EPC Class 1

860 - 930 MHz

 

Parameters for air interface communication

EPCglobal Gen 2

860 - 930 MHz

 

Parameters for air interface communication to replace Class 0 and Class 1

 

ISO 14443

13.56 MHz

 

Regulation for contacless / proximity ID cards

ISO 15693

13.56 MHz

 

Regulation of contactless / vicinity cards, reading distance up to 1 m.

 

ISO 18000-2

125, 134.2 KHz

Low Frequency RFID air interference protocol

ISO 18000-3

13.56 MHz

 

Reading distance max. 1.5 m, improvement on ISO 15693

ISO 18000-4

2.45 GHz

Microwave

ISO 18000-5

5,8 GHz

 

ISO 18000-6

860 960 MHz

EPCglobal Generation 2 Tags (submitted by EPC to ISO, under development phase)

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Advantages:
 
  • No line of sight
  • Contacless
  • Improved read range
  • Ability to write data
  • High data storage capacity
  • Can read multiple item
  • Suitable for harsh environment
  • No human intervention

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Frequency Chart:

 

Frequency

Characteristics

Applications

125 KHz 135 KHz

Low Frequency

  • Good performance around metal and liquid
  • Slow data transfer rate
  • Few inches of read range
  • Access control
  • Animal identification

 

13.56 MHz

High Frequency

  • Worldwide standards
  • Longer read ranges than LF
  • Tag cost lower than LF
  • Poor performance around metal and liquid
  • Library
  • Access control
  • Asset tracking
  • Smart shelf
  • People identification
  • Item level tracking

433MHz and 860MHz to 930 MHz

Ultra High Frequency

  • Longer read ranges than HF
  • Used as Active RFID systems
  • Most widely accepted frequency in supply chain mandates
  • Volumes may bring the tag cost to lowest when compared to others
  • Poor performance when near metal and liquid
  • Supply chain management
  • Inventory control
  • Warehouse management
  • Logistics
  • Asset tracking

 

2.45 GHz and 5.8 GHz

  • Fast data transfer rates
  • Used for active and semi active RFID systems
  • Poor performance when brought near metal and liquid
  • Toll collection
  • Industrial automation
  • Fast moving conveyor belts

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